Saturday, May 16, 2020
Amy Paul English 1B Lerma 3 March 2015 Word Count: 1407 Behind the Walls of a Bad Marriage Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is a startling representation of 19th century gender inequality and how it affected women in their marriages. It illustrates the way women of the 19th century were treated as subordinates in their relationships with men, and the negative psychological side effects this often had. The narrator, who remains nameless throughout the story, finds herself trapped in the bedroom of her new home, encouraged to stay there by her husband and sister-in-law to treat her apparent depression, which she refers to as a Ã¢â¬Å"nervousÃ¢â¬ condition. The distracting yellow wallpaper in the room becomes the focal point of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦ItÃ¢â¬â¢s clear that, even if she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t admit it, she isnÃ¢â¬â¢t happy about the fact that she has no power in making decisions about treating her own mental illness. The narrator wishes to do certain things such as write in her diar y or switch bedrooms, but John does not want to give in to her Ã¢â¬Å"fanciesÃ¢â¬ . She mentions at one point that the house they live in has many beautiful rooms, but the one she lives in is one of the most unattractive in the house, due mainly to the wallpaper. Her affection for the house in spite of its flaws seems to reflect her love for her husband despite his patronizing and controlling behavior toward her. As the story progresses, the flaw in the room she is in, the wallpaper, becomes increasingly important for the narrator to focus her attention on, paralleling the growing issue of the oppressive relationship in her marriage. John is the clear antagonist of the story in that his contempt toward his wife is the ultimate reason for her psychological breakdown. He is constantly patronizing her, at times treating her more as a daughter than a wife. At several points in the story, he refers to her as Ã¢â¬Å"little girlÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"blessed little gooseÃ¢â¬ . It seems like , as both her husband and physician, he is genuinely trying to help her and is treating her the way he thinks is best in order to aid her recovery. But his persistent controlling behavior and stifling of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns continue to trap
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Since the beginning of history, people have always chosen some of their fellow men to discriminate and belittle. Although almost always the people of this nation come into the realization of their wrongs, it feels as though there will never be a time when everyone is truly as equal as the Constitution states. The same-sex marriage controversy has been very heated in America lately, but the undeniable truth is that the government has no right to prohibit it. Unfortunately, the truth is not always easily seen by everyone. Perhaps the best way to unveil justice is to tear down the false propaganda that shields it. To be frank, there is absolutely no validity in the arguments made against same-sex marriage. One of the most ridiculousÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Suffice to say that if there is emotional depth lacking anywhere it would probably be in opposite sex marriage. Another argument against same-sex marriage was that it would raise the already high divorce rates and further weaken the institution. Once again these arguments are meaningless speculation and are easily proved otherwise with a little investigation. For example, the state of Massachusetts legalized gay marriage in May of 2004 and was later found to have the lowest divorce rate in the United States during the year 2008; A result of its twenty-one percent decline between 2003 and 2008. The correlation between the two is undeniable and yet people still have the nerve try to fight the facts. Truth is, that the counters against same-sex marriage simply have no premise and are mainly revolved around odium and intolerance. An extremely important reason for the legalization of gay marriage is that the benefits that come from a government-recognized union are crucial to a stable relationship between two people. Benefits that provide basic rights such as hospital visitations during an illness, taxation and inheritance rights, access to family health coverage, joint adoption, and protection in event of the relationship ending are all vital and cannot be spared simply because some people do not have an open mind. All couples who loveShow MoreRelatedShould Gay Marriage Be Legal? Essay911 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShould gay marriage be legal? Gay marriage should be legal because as woman and man, all individuals have the same right in society; because same-sex couples can constitute a good based family; because it is just a way to make official a common union nowadays, even with the religious issue; because it is not related to polygamy; and because love matters and it does not differ in nature according to the sex of its object or the person who experiences it. The first reason why same sex marriageRead MoreEssay Gay Marriage Should Be Legal889 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesguarantees the right for same-sex couples to marry. Should gay marriages really be allowed? Has the Supreme Court ruled in error? Gay marriage should be legal because all individuals have the same right in society; because same-sex couples can constitute a good based family; because it is just a way to make official a common union nowadays, even with the religious issue; because it is not related to polygamy; and because love matters and it does not differ in nature according to the sex of its object orRead More Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Issues - Same-Sex Marriage and the Destruction of American Culture1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSame-Sex Marriage and the Destruction of American Culture Ã Ã Ã Ã The late 20th century disintegration of marriage is epoch-defining and hazardous to moral health. The question of legally recognizing same-sex marriage - thrust upon us by recent court decisions - culminates this disintegration. Ã There are many reasons why the ills of marriage are so pivotal. Marriage is the principle of sexual morality. Immoral sexual acts are often wrong for other reasons, too, such as the injusticeRead MoreTaking a Look at Same-Sex Marriage938 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSame-sex marriage is against the law and against the moral standards of the religious society. In this paper I will sympathize with the homosexual community in order to improve their views on marriage. First amendment of the Constitution protects and makes homosexuality legal. Marriage is also legal. Marriage laws and the rights that fall under marriage are defined and upheld by the states. Should same-sex marriage remain illegal? Homosexuals believe rights guaranteed to married heterosexual couplesRead MoreEssay on Same Sex Marriages615 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The proposed legalization concerning same-sex marriage is one of the most significant issues in contemporary American family law. Presently, it is one of the most vigorously advocated reforms discussed in law reviews, one of the most explosive political questions facing lawmakers, and one of the most provocative issues emerging before American courts. If same-sex marriage is legalized, it could be one of the most revolutionary policy decisions in the history. The potentialRead MoreHow Does Same Sex Marriage Affects in Decreasing Population Growth1436 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFirst, what is MARRIAGE? Marriage is a socially or ritually recognized union or legal contract betweenÃ spousesÃ that establishes rights and obligations between them, between them and their children. (From that statement, the word children are the most important thing in marriage, WHY? Because we all know having same sex marriage CANNOT produce a child) What is SAME SEX MARRIAGE? -------------- Decrease of population growth caused by SAME SEX MARRIAGE Extending the benefits and status ofRead MoreThe Legalization Of Same Sex Marriage1091 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe legalization of same-sex marriage is a hot topic in the U.S. approving, it in all fifty states can be harmful to the country. Same-sex marriage should not have been legalized in the United States. First, legalizing can be harmful to the society, Second, same-sex marriage it always denies a child a father or a mother, Third, legalizing It Offends some religions and violates tradition. In addition, It means all citizens should have understood of the consequences before making the decision. OneRead More Gay Marriage Should Be Legal Essay1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage. Yet, same-sex marriage continues to be a highly debated issue that leaves our society searching for answers. This has been very apparent during elections when politicians, in order to distract or sway conservative voters, all took a side and had an opinion on the issue of same-sex marriage. The debate has been presented on the left as a civil rights debate, equal rights. And on the right,Read MoreThe Perception Of Micro Aggression Essay1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmicro-aggression and my past and current perceptions of micro-aggression against LGBTQIA (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, Asexual). My relation to power and privilege which according to my sexual orientation, ability level and race is obvious. My sexual orientation is heterosexuality. Due to the heterosexuality is dominant in the society, I may experience the heterosexual privilege to some extents. In addition, I am from China and my race is Asian. Yellow people is a minor group in theRead MoreShould Same-Sex Marriage Be Legalized in Hong Kong?1095 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesShould same-sex marriage be legalized in Hong Kong? In recent years, more homosexual people have come out to disclose their sexual orientation. Gays and lesbians may even feel pride and have higher self-esteem instead of having shame. People in Hong Kong generally are more open-minded now. There is no legal recognition of same-sex marriage in Hong Kong. In many countries or regions, the legalization of same-sex marriage is already implemented. Therefore, some may say that same-sex marriage should
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theObjectivity and Impartiality in Political Reporting. Answer: Introduction The report will discuss in detail about the concept of Balance, objectivity and impartiality in context with Brexit case. In 2016, a study was presented by the Trust of BBC on the concept of impartiality especially in case of statistics that was released. The study highlight the efforts of the present corporations based work that is attached with journalists however, cautions must be taken that completely lacks the right kind of challenge in some kind output as well as there is assumed resultant attitude to provide complete interpretation (Henn Sharpe, 2016). The overall findings will also get attached with so many people who can actually express their frustration along with media based coverage of the case. These people will specifically claim and those claims are based on distinct sides that are usually insufficient questioned by the broadcaster on national level. Objective of the Report The main objective of the report clearly understands the concept of Balance, Impartiality and objectivity. The report will discuss in detail about the case of Brexit formation and UK exists from the EU. The report will try to understand that media reporting and stories covered BBC on this case. Literature Review Balance, Objectivity and Impartiality Impartiality There is a lot of confusion related to the understanding of all the concepts which are balance, objectivity and impartiality. However, the impartiality and objectivity are closely connected and often used interchangeably. But it is important to understand that both have a distinct meaning and are used differently in different countries (Fox Pearce, 2016). The whole discussion associated with them has now become so knotted that the words sometimes are used to define precisely the issue for which it was designed to rectify. The word impartiality is usually used in UK however the word objectivity is common in other part of the world like US. Impartiality is a word which is infers that it is related to concept of bias and is more complex by nature and on the other hand, the word objectivity is a more disciplined kind of principle which completely gets isolated with proofs as well as facts but is easier to accomplish. The concept of impartiality is often distinguished from the concept of balance and is based on allocation of equal kind of space with opposed opinions. On the other hand, the concept of objectivity means an effort which is completely excluded from any kind of judgment which is subjective by nature (Jackson et al, 2016). The concept of impartiality is based on an attempt related to different opinions, ideas or interests or people which are completely detached from the philosophy. It is not important that everyone will be able to get an equal kind of treatment however; everyone must be treated that way. This is why; there is a lot of confusion over how different the terms will be applied on the concept. In the complete discussion, the process of application or a discipline on which a professional report of a journalist is submitted in order to produce some kind of news that can be identified from reliable source. The whole issue or concern was mainly associated with the inputs towards the concept of journalism. In the present set of modern critics, the concept usually gets attacked with the results related to process or the content which are of less value in the current digital age. It is also argued that the concept of impartiality showcases news associated with key features in the current provenance needed to properly evaluate the report and in some case it is not right in actually cramping the concept of free market in concepts (Hestermeyer Ortino, 2016). There are some concepts which also suggest that the needs are simple and need to open the overall biasness or inte rests and also permit the readers to take all the concepts into proper notice. The journalist sees the concept of impartiality as wrong kind of construct with absolutely nothing like completely neutral, truth or objective and it is also being argued that the whole world is amalgamation of so many partial kinds of opinions of views (Ibrahim, 2017). The overall notion of impartiality as well as objectivity has no intention to ask journalist that has no views or biases of their own. On the other hand, these people are quite professional with disciplines or any kind of processes that is designed t o learn as well as counter any kind of bias in the reporters. The overall intention was to make sure that there is consistent as well as transparency principles to assess data with the intent of accomplishing fairness as well as accuracy (Doyle, 2017). The overall discussion is only about the results related to journalism however, the inputs are important as well. They can be considered as a c rucial means of dividing different set of standards with data and when professional based norms are employed while looking at the process or concept of journalism and sometimes it is only related to outputs in a significant manner to divide between the concepts of journalism on professional level as well as citizen based journalism along with chatter based on social media and rise in the range of government as well as corporate communication. Objectivity The concept is taken as a standard however, when they are considered as standards, then the important question is that why two newspapers ever considered from similar angles or breaking story. If in case, everyone is writing a story based on objectivity then how can it be presented in same story concept but in a different manner? The time, story is assigned there is an existence of some kind of biasness. An editor goes for a specific story over other kind of story since it is perceived as a better story than other. The writer determines who should be interviewed and it is also crucial to consider the concept important and also base the study on people not to interview at all. They also determine what must be asked and what is not important to ask. It is also decided about the overall lead must be and the angle from which it must be taken and people who must be quoted first and people who are quoted for longer period of times. Editors also determine the changes, the cuts or addition a nd the overall present ability along with headlines on the top (Arnold et al, 2016). More editors determine the story which must be placed with the picture that appears alongside with it. In case, the story is about writing the conflict there are number of decisions that are based on number of people that can impact the way the story is described or written. The overall decisions will also impact the way the story are based or taken as by the public. The capacity to impact the opinion is quite powerful by nature and it is journalist job to find out everything about all sides of any problem that people write about. It is also important to find out the different sides of the story. If in case the research is based on the stand on a problem which is wrong by nature then it will be taken as wrong no matter what is written about it. It is important to understand that if the facts are not supporting the views then the views needs to change (Arnold et al, 2016). Balance The concept of objectivity can be taken as a fanciful case and balance is not very important. The concept is actually supports the concept of credibility for the current story and it is also important to understand that without proper representation of all kind of opinions, the story actually end up serving the objective of the people who go for interview instead of presenting a right kind of spectrum of views or dissent (Peat et al, 2016). One of the challenging and difficult aspects of this concept is that it is based on important change based story and the story is presented one after the other. Balancing a single story with the other can be simple while asking students about what can perceived about dining hall cuisine. It is also challenging than that since the ideas is to present fair interpretation and in case if there is no such kind of voice based on dissent or assent, the concept deserves to present in the story. There are specific elements based on judgment of balance. Presentation of racist as well as homophobic kind of opinion is informed in bad manner on the topic of the article which does not serve to present anything (Peat et al, 2016). The overall accountability of a journalist is actually to extend the interview of people who are knows about facts in the field that can be investigated properly. Brexit Briefing As per the guidelines of BBC based on reporting which is related to referendum especially known as impartial as well as independent kind of reporting related to campaign. At the same time, there are so many commentators that are based on rigid kind of balance with overrode that must be based on fair coverage as well as it is also backed with rigorous kind of scrutiny of different policies along with campaigns of all important parties as well as campaign based groups (Lund, 2016). It was believed that there was risk of fairness of biasness and people can give equal airtime along with unequal argument without even daring to say that or take one side as an evidence or a large body based on number of expert opinions (Olsen, 2017). While analyzing the aftermath related to overall vote to leave European Union, this biasness is dubbed as regulated as equivocation and has also been reported by number of media academics in present new publications that are issued by the association of politic al studies. The academics also find out that while the complete weight is on newspaper of the country and also supported by the leave or broadcasters who functions under the tight scrutiny by giving equal amount of airtimes but also favored by campaigning on routine basis and with over analysis as well as scrutiny of number of claims. People like Michael Gove in reality dismissed the experts and the connected coverage and it was largely related to presidential position which aims on leading the team of politicians consisting academics, economist and other kind of specialists that were hardly seen at any given point of time. The concept of objectivity was actually supported by impartiality. Other analysts defines that the concept of BBC gave right kind of importance to more than thirteen hundred business leaders who actually signed a letter to The Times backed by UK membership of EU and already reported concepts or views of people like Sir James Dyson (Olsen, 2017). It is also simila r to the warning given by Novel Prize winning economists and often taken as unchecked to discredited amount of saving for different European Union contribution. In addition lot skepticism was bounced or taken from number of news interviews to the BBC and other Reality check or associated services (Abbas, 2017). Most probably the reporting based lessons must also draw from the Trust of BBC which is actually a distinct view of impartiality in scientific manner and it is also triggered by the portrayal of change in climate along with MMR vaccine and related scare. It is also called as judgment or right weight on coverage along with better training and it is also being argued that the journalists have wrong or less knowledge of the contribution of EU in the Brexit vote. The results of referendum which came in June can be seem as to decrease the need for such expertise information along with clear understand of the European Union. It is important to understand that it will remain as cruc ial or important in reporting based negotiation on the future of UK outside of EU in coming time (McNair et al, 2017). Conclusion As a reporter or an editor, the overall reputation is to work like a keep and it is important to work like a publication however for all the people in this specific field. The work of the journalism is to make sure that the actions taken are responsible as well as ethical. The level of motivation of ethical professional must be similar to the motivation that exists for writing in the initial time (De SomeR, 2017). The issues has been analyzed and discussed by many authors and they claimed it to be two sides story where one side claims that the whole world should be considered to be flat and the other side considers it round. The broadcaster must have failed to fulfill the basic responsibilities associated with care for the people of the country. In addition there was never any kind of shortage of other who actually perceived that the BBC can be blamed for the same whichever is concerned with the solution of the present referendum (Fox Pearce, 2016). Reference Abbas, T. (2017). The Trojan Horse Plot and the Fear of Muslim Power in British State Schools.Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 1-16. Arnold, A., Bohm, G., Corner, A., Mays, C., Pidgeon, N. F., Poortinga, W., ... Tvinnereim, E. (2016). Socio-political profiles to inform a cross-national survey in France, Germany, Norway and the UK. De SomeR, S. (2017).Autonomous Public Bodies and the Law: A European Perspective. Edward Elgar Publishing. Doyle, J. (2017). Adam Curtis as remixologist: the case for metajournalism as radical practice.Studies in Documentary Film,11(1), 45-63. Fox, S., Pearce, S. (2016). Did the EU Referendum boost youth engagement with politics?. Henn, M., Sharpe, D. (2016). Young people in a changing Europe: British youth and Brexit 2016. Hestermeyer, H., Ortino, F. (2016). Towards a UK Trade Policy Post-Brexit: The Beginning of a Complex Journey.King's Law Journal,27(3), 452-462. Ibrahim, M. (2017). Rapefugees Not Welcome. Jackson, D., Thorsen, E., Wring, D. (2016). EU Referendum Analysis 2016: Media, Voters and the Campaign. Lund, B. (2016).Housing Politics in the United Kingdom: Power, Planning and Protest. Policy Press. McNair, B., Flew, T., Harrington, S., Swift, A. (2017).Politics, Media and Democracy in Australia: Public and Producer Perceptions of the Political Public Sphere. Routledge. Olsen, J. P. (2017).Democratic Accountability, Political Order, and Change: Exploring Accountability Processes in an Era of European Transformation. Oxford University Press. Peat, J., Grice, P., Gardner, C., Johnson, P., Roy, G., Perman, R. (2016). Minding Scotlands Money: Economic Governance for an Increasingly Devolved Scotland.
Saturday, April 18, 2020
Why Graph Databases Make a Better Home for Interconnected Data Than the Relational Databases? With the advancements in computing technologies and the increasing processing power of machines, the necessity to shoehorn data into predefined structures is being gradually replaced by the ability to build models that can accommodate the organic growth and evolving nature of data.Systems become more and more sophisticated in representing our messy world and the interconnections we live by in it. The richer our databases get and the better (more expressive) the connections of the data items in them, the deeper our analysis and the bigger our potential to understand, manage and create processes to move our business forward.That said, having the best home for your data is a must. It is to be a space where data items not only live together but also are understood and used accordingly for insights into the relationships they exist in. Relationships expressed with tables, lots of tables: Relational DatabasesFor many years relational databases have been the dominant database choice for data storage and retrieval. The relational model stores data in tables, with rows representing instances of entities and columns representing the values attributed to each entity.For example, if you want to express that Fred, Wilma and Pebbles Flintstone, together with the notorious Bamm-Bamm Rubble are instances of the entity Person and live in the instance of City Bedrock, you can do that with the following table, where you will describe these relationships: As things change with time, and the number and the variety of relationships grow, you will need additional tables. For the newly occurred relationships to be expressed, you will create more and more tables.In relational databases, references (i.e., connections) to other rows and tables are made with the help of the so-called JOINs. This means that in order to connect an entity from one table to another, you create a third table, which matches the records from both tables.For instance, in order to express that Pebbles Flintstone became Bamm-BammÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, another table has to be created. This will be a junction table, representing Bamm-Bamm (Person.014) as an instance of the entity Husband and Pebbles (Person.013) as an instance of the entity Wife. Any other relationships you might want to add would need to be explicitly described in a table, which refers to the first table youÃ¢â¬â¢ve created. That is, if you want to also express that Fred (Person.011) and Wilma (Person.012) are PebbleÃ¢â¬â¢s (Person.013) parents, you will have to do that with yet another JOIN where Fred and Wilma are instances of the entity Parent and Pebbles is an instance of the entity Child: It is only with all these additional, explicitly expressed relationships that you will be able to use the data above to find the answer of more complex queries, such as: In which city does the child of Fred live? or Who is Bamm-BammÃ¢â¬â¢s wife or Where does the father of Bamm-BammÃ¢â¬â¢s wife live?.Needless to say, such relational representations are suitable for simple data models and connections that fit into a tabular format. They are perfectly fine for financial records, inventories, lists of students, etc. When it comes to mapping complex networks of relationships, though, the processes of joining are most often than not inefficient, time-consuming and computer power consuming.Interconnected data (the most obvious example being the data from social networks) are everything but easy to tame with the above mechanism of creating more and more junction tables and additional elements to record the ever-increasing number of relationships between data items. The relational model t urns out to be too expensive and resource-consuming to express the richness and the interconnectedness of exponentially growing in volume and variety data.ThÃ µ huge amount of heterogeneous, diverse data that surround us is to be approached differently.Relationships as paths of (machine) understanding: Graph DatabasesOutside the tables of the relational databases, there lie paths that enable managing highly connected data, working with complex queries and having readily available relationships, without the need to express them explicitly.These are the paths of a graph database.To represent and store data, graph databases use graph structures (knowledge graphs). A graph is comprised of interconnected nodes (i.e., things) and edges (i.e., relationships between things). Edges are how you can assign properties to things.Also, instead of creating tables for each relationship separately, in a graph database you will just add edges (relationships) to corresponding nodes (things). Thus a n odeÃ¢â¬â¢s connection, in turn, is connected to all the other connections of this same node.To get back to our Flintstones example, all the tables that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve created for every relationship between Fred, Wilma, Pebbles and Bamm-Bamm, would be expressed the following way in a graph database: Thus, when you connect Bamm-Bamm to Pebbles, you also connect Bamm-Bamm to all of PebbleÃ¢â¬â¢s connections Fred, Wilma and with their other connections city, for example. The system will implicitly hold the information about where the father of Bamm-BammÃ¢â¬â¢s wife lives, without you having to keep a record of multiple joins and tables to retrieve it.Storing data in such a manner provides the flexibility to represent complex interconnected structures and to use the information they carry in the much simpler and effective way.When should you use a graph database?ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s simply nothing you can do with graph databases that you canÃ¢â¬â¢t with relational ones.That said, letÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look at how a graph database can help you do more with data. In a sense, with graph databases, data are allowed to organically grow and easily connect with more and more items. Click To TweetItÃ¢â¬â¢s only natural to consider a graph database for complex data, with many connections, the pattern of which you want to track and know about. A graph database would smoothly incorporate new heterogenous data and serve as a framework for storing, managing and querying highly connected data.Graph databases are well-suited in any case when complex relationships between people, places, events, etc. are to be expressed. Typical use cases range from managing customers and personnel data, through storing and using intelligent content, to finance and investment management.More specific application of the graph database model include:resource planningperformance analysisfraud detectioncompliance managementcontent and asset managementrecommendationsproduction managementbusiness processes optimizationidentification of patterns and insightsintegration of heter ogeneous scientific dataenterprise search and navigation optimizationThe future of data storage and management The ability to pull data and connect them gives enterprises a significant edge when it comes to the granular understanding of the environment they operate in and the optimization of their key business processes. Click To TweetThis ability depends on the quality of the models chosen for data representation, storage and retrieval. The more accurately and efficiently the structure of a particular domain is mapped, represented and interconnected, the bigger the value and the potential of the digital data it creates each and every day.Still, the decision to build a home for all your data, neatly classified and labeled, related, interconnected and easily searchable is a matter of cost and benefit analysis.What is important is to acknowledge the opportunity for data to be turned into a resource, easily accessed and effectively used across the organization. As a database can serve not only as a storage cupboard for siloed archives but ratherÃ as a springboard for knowledge discovery.
Saturday, March 14, 2020
A Quick Tour of Art Through the Ages Put on your sensible shoes as we embark on an extremely abbreviated tour of art through the ages. The purpose of this piece is to hit the highlights and provide you with the barest of basics on the different eras in Art History. Prehistoric Eras 30,000-10,000 BC - Paleolithic peoples were strictly hunter-gatherers, and life was tough. Humans made a gigantic leap in abstract thinking and began creating art. Subject matter concentrated on two things: food, as seen in Cave Art, and the necessity to create more humans. 10,000-8000 BC - The ice began retreating and life got a little easier. The Mesolithic period (which lasted longer in northern Europe than it did in the Middle East) saw painting move out of the caves and onto the rocks. Painting also became more symbolic and abstract. 8000-3000 BC - Fast forward to the Neolithic age, complete with agriculture and domesticated animals. Now that food was more plentiful, people had time to invent useful tools like writing and measuring. The measuring part must have come in handy for the megalith builders. Ethnographic Art - It should be noted that stone age art continued to flourish around the world for a number of cultures, right up to the present. Ethnographic is a handy term that here means: Not going the way of Western art. Ancient Civilizations 3500-331 BC - Mesopotamia - The land between the rivers saw an amazing number of cultures rise to - and fall from - power. The Sumerians gave us ziggurats, temples, and lots of sculptures of gods. More importantly, they unified natural and formal elements in art. The Akkadians introduced the victory stele, whose carvings forever remind us of their prowess in battle. The Babylonians improved upon the stele, using it to record the first uniform code of law. The Assyrians ran wild with architecture and sculpture, both in relief and in-the-round. Eventually, it was the Persians who put the whole area - and its art - on the map, as they conquered adjacent lands. 3200-1340 BC - Egypt - Art in ancient Egypt was art for the dead. The Egyptians built tombs, pyramids (elaborate tombs), the Sphinx (a tomb) and decorated tombs with colorful pictures of the gods they believed ruled in the afterlife. 3000-1100 BC - The Aegean - The Minoan culture, on Crete, and the Mycenaeans in Greece brought us frescos, open and airy architecture, and marble idols. Classical Civilizations 800-323 BC - Greece - The Greeks introduced humanistic education, which is reflected in their art. Ceramics, painting, architecture, and sculpture evolved into elaborate, highly crafted and decorated objects which glorified the greatest creation of all: humans. 6th-5th centuries BC - The Etruscans - On the Italian peninsula, the Etruscans embraced the Bronze Age in a big way, producing sculptures notable for being stylized, ornamental and full of implied motion. They were also enthusiastic producers of tombs and sarcophagi, not unlike the Egyptians. 509 BC-337 AD - The Romans - As they rose to prominence, the Romans first attempted to wipe out Etruscan art, followed by numerous attacks on Greek art. Borrowing freely from these two conquered cultures, the Romans created their own style, one which increasingly stood for power. Architecture became monumental, sculptures depicted re-named gods, goddesses, and prominent Citizens and, in painting, the landscape was introduced and frescos became enormous. 1st Century-c. 526 - Early Christian Art Early Christian art falls into two categories: that of the Period of Persecution (up to the year 323) and that which came after Constantine the Great recognized Christianity: the Period of Recognition. The first is known primarily for construction of catacombs, and portable art which could be hidden. The second period is marked by the active construction of churches, mosaics, and the rise of book-making. Sculpture was demoted to works in relief only (anything else would have been deemed graven images). c. 526-1390 - Byzantine Art Not an abrupt transition, as the dates imply, the Byzantine style gradually diverged from Early Christian art, just as the Eastern Church grew farther apart from the Western. Byzantine art is characterized by being more abstract and symbolic, and less concerned with any pretense of depth - or the force of gravity - being apparent in paintings or mosaics. Architecture became quite complicated and domes predominated. 622-1492 - Islamic Art To this day, Islamic art is known for being highly decorative. Its motifs translate beautifully from a chalice to a rug, to the Alhambra. Islam has prohibitions against idolatry, and weve little pictorial history as a result. 375-750 - Migration Art These years were quite chaotic in Europe, as barbarian tribes sought (and sought, and sought) places in which to settle. Frequent wars erupted and constant ethnic relocation was the norm. Art during this period was necessarily small and portable, usually in the form of decorative pins or bracelets. The shining exception to this dark age in art occurred in Ireland, which had the great fortune of escaping invasion. For a time. 750-900 - The Carolingian Period Charlemagne built an empire that didnt outlast his bickering and inept grandsons, but the cultural revival the empire spawned proved more durable. Monasteries became as small cities where manuscripts were mass-produced. Goldsmithing and the use of precious and semi-precious stones were in vogue. 900-1002 - The Ottonian Period The Saxon king, Otto I, decided he could succeed where Charlemagne failed. This didnt work out either, but Ottonian art, with its heavy Byzantine influences, breathed new life into sculpture, architecture, and metalwork. 1000-1150 - Romanesque Art For the first time in history, art is described by a term other than the name of a culture or civilization. Europe was becoming more of a cohesive entity, being held together by Christianity and feudalism. The invention of the barrel vault allowed churches to become cathedrals, sculpture became an integral part of the architecture, and painting continued mainly in illuminated manuscripts. 1140-1600 - Gothic Art Gothic was first coined to (derogatorily) describe this eras style of architecture, which chugged on long after sculpture and painting had left its company. The gothic arch allowed great, soaring cathedrals to be built, which were then decorated with the new technology of stained glass. During this period, too, we begin to learn more individual names of painters and sculptors - most of whom seem anxious to put all things Gothic behind them. In fact, beginning around 1200, all sorts of wild artistic innovations started taking place in Italy. 1400-1500 - Fifteenth-Century Italian Art This was the Golden Age of Florence. Its most powerful family, the Medici (bankers and benevolent dictators), lavishly spent endless funds for the glory and beautification of their Republic. Artists flocked in for a share of the largess, built, sculpted, painted and began actively questioning rules of art. Art, in turn, became noticeably more individualized. 1495-1527 - The High Renaissance All of the recognized masterpieces from the lump term Renaissance were created during these years. Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, and company made such surpassing masterpieces, in fact, that nearly every artist, forever after, didnt even try to paint in this style. The good news was that, because of these Renaissance Greats, being an artist was now considered acceptable. 1520-1600 - Mannerism Here we have another first: an abstract term for an artistic era. Renaissance artists, after the death of Raphael, continued to refine painting and sculpture but they did not seek a new style of their own. Instead, they created in the technical manner of their predecessors. 1325-1600 - The Renaissance in Northern Europe It did occur, but not in clearly defined steps as was the case in Italy. Countries and kingdoms were busy jockeying for prominence (fighting), and there was that notable break with the Catholic Church. Art took a back seat to these other happenings, and styles moved from Gothic to Renaissance to Baroque in sort of a non-cohesive, artist-by-artist basis. 1600-1750 - Baroque Art Humanism, the Renaissance and the Reformation (among other factors) worked together to leave the Middle Ages forever behind, and art became accepted by the masses. Artists of the Baroque period introduced human emotions, passion, and new scientific understanding to their works - many of which retained religious themes, regardless of which Church the artists held dear. 1700-1750 - The Rococo In what some would deem an ill-advised move, Rococo took Baroque art from feast for the eyes to outright visual gluttony. If art or architecture could be gilded, embellished or otherwise taken over the top, Rococo ferociously added these elements. As a period, it was (mercifully) brief. 1750-1880 - Neo-Classicism vs. Romanticism Things had loosened up enough, by this era, that two different styles could compete for the same market. Neo-classicism was characterized by faithful study (and copy) of the classics, combined with the use of elements brought to light by the new science of archaeology. Romanticism, on the other hand, defied easy characterization. It was more of an attitude, one made acceptable by the Enlightenment and dawning of social consciousness. Of the two, Romanticism had far more impact on the course of art from this time forward. 1830s-1870 - Realism Oblivious to the above two movements, the Realists emerged (first quietly, then quite loudly) with the conviction that history had no meaning and artists shouldnt render anything that they hadnt, personally, experienced. In an effort to experience things they became involved in social causes and, not surprisingly, often found themselves on the wrong side of Authority. Realistic art increasingly detached itself from form and embraced light and color. 1860s-1880 - Impressionism Where Realism moved away from form, Impressionism threw form out the window. The Impressionists lived up to their name (which they themselves certainly hadnt coined): Art was an impression, and as such could be rendered wholly through light and color. The world was first outraged by their effrontery, then accepting. With acceptance came the end of Impressionism as a movement. Mission accomplished, art was free to spread out now in any way it chose. The Impressionists changed everything when their art was accepted. From this point on, artists had free rein to experiment. Even if the public loathed the results, it was still Art, and thus accorded a certain respect. Movements, schools, and styles - in dizzying number - came, went, diverged from one another and sometimes melded. Theres no way, really, to accord all of these entities even a brief mention here, so we will now cover only a few of the better-known names. 1885-1920 - Post-Impressionism This is a handy title for what wasnt a movement, but a group of artists (CÃ ©zanne, Van Gogh, Seurat, and Gauguin, primarily) who moved past Impressionism and on to other, separate endeavors. They kept the light and color Impressionism bought but tried to put some of the other elements of art - form, and line, for example - back in art. 1890-1939 - The Fauves and Expressionism The Fauves (wild beasts) were French painters led by Matisse and Rouault. The movement they created, with its wild colors and depictions of primitive objects and people, became known as Expressionism and spread, notably, to Germany. 1905-1939 - Cubism and Futurism Picasso and Braque, in France, invented Cubism, where organic forms were broken down into a series of geometric shapes. Their invention would prove elemental to the Bauhaus in coming years, as well as inspiring the first modern abstract sculpture. Meanwhile, in Italy, Futurism was formed. What began as a literary movement moved into a style of art that embraced machines and the industrial age. 1922-1939 - Surrealism Surrealism was all about uncovering the hidden meaning of dreams and expressing the subconscious. It was no coincidence that Freud had already published his ground-breaking psychoanalytical studies prior to this movements emergence. 1945-Present - Abstract Expressionism World War II (1939-1945) interrupted any new movements in art, but art came back with a vengeance in 1945. Emerging from a world torn apart, Abstract Expressionism discarded everything - including recognizable forms - except self-expression and raw emotion. Late 1950s-Present - Pop and Op Art In a reaction against Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art glorified the most mundane aspects of American culture and called them art. It was fun art, though. And in the happening mid-60s, Op (an abbreviated term for optical illusion) Art came on the scene, just in time to mesh nicely with the psychedelic music. 1970s-Present In the last thirty-odd years, art has changed at lightning speed. Weve seen the advent of performance art, conceptual art, digital art, and shock art, to name but a few new offerings. As we move toward a more global culture, our art reminds us of our collective and respective pasts. The technology with which youre reading this article will surely be improved upon and, as it is, we can all keep (nearly instantly) abreast of whatever comes next in arts history.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Evaluate 2 aspects of effect of globalization in India in the last 5 years - Essay Example FDI has tremendous impact in economic development of India. Among the emerging economies, India offers the most liberal and transparent policies on FDI investments. The following table shows how FDI inflows from different countries flew to India. The maximum impact of FDI has taken place in service sector which at 21% includes financial sector, information technology, and travel business. Computer software and hardware businesses are next in the line contributing around 9%. Telecommunication sector has grown rapidly in India due to huge contributions by FDI. There is no surprise that Indian telecom industry which is growing at the rate of 45% has the highest growth rate found in the world. (Chaturvedi, Ila 2011) Indias growth story and FDI has direct linkages. Ratio of FDI Inflow to Gross Capital Formation rose to 9.6 percent in the year 2008, which was found to be only 1.9 percent during 1999-2000. In the same way, ratio of FDI Outflow to Gross Capital Formation went to 4.1 percent in the year 2008 which was ruling at only 0.1 percent during 1999-2000. (Ansari, Shamim 2010) India has been one of the most lucrative destinations for investment in the service sector for its competitive wages and due to huge demand and supply gaps in the sectors like insurance, banking, telecommunication and financial services. India has become a hub for back-office processing, medical transcription services, call centres, knowledge process outsourcing and back office accounting and financial services apart many other services including software and information technology business. The Indias average quarterly Gross Domestic Product Growth rate averaged 8.4 between 2005 and 2010 that reached at its pinnacle in September, 2006. This growth rate should be seen at the back drop of previous growth rates that prevailed around 5.5 percent before 2005. Globalisation means opening up of markets for
Monday, February 10, 2020
Case study ethics - Essay Example on to health and safety of people, making use of stolen code, offering services for the post for which, one is not suitable and capable and production of fake test results. All these ethical problems become a cause for the death of a human being. The leadership of the company, Silicon Techtronics Inc. also took unethical and autocratic decisions due to which, the co-workers were made to take support of unethical steps in order to safe guard their jobs. The time assigned for the development of the software program was not much and in a little time, an imperfect software was developed and this imperfection was hidden from the users. This essay takes into consideration the ethical issues along with the ethical codes applicable on those issues. In addition, it also informs about the philosophical theory that could have brought a change in the results. Randy Samuels was indicted to be involved in the killing of Bart Matthews on the basis of the program that he wrote for the functioning of the arms of the robot. Bart Matthews was the robot operator in the firm. Due to the malfunctioning of the robot, Matthews was put to death. The robot moved its hands violently due to which, MatthewsÃ¢â¬â¢ skull got damaged and he died at the spot. Randy Samuels was accused because it was analyzed that he made use of the coding language erroneously and carelessly. Randy Samuels misinterpreted the codei due to which, the robot functioned wrong. The ethical consideration that is applicable in this situation is, Ã¢â¬Å"You shall not claim any level of competence that you do not possess. You shall only offer to do work or provide a service that is within your professional competence.Ã¢â¬ ii When Samuel was not fully sure about his competence and experience, he should not have offered his services for programming. He should have assessed his knowledge and expertise for programming. The resulting death of Matthews indicates that Samuels had not made use of his programming before and he was not